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2009年12月四级真题

时间:2024-06-30 12:26:01人气:96作者:用户投稿

09年12月英语四级答案详解

2009年12月大学英语四级考试答案详解

PartⅠ Writing

审题谋篇

本次四级作文主题为“绿色校园”,这是一个看似简单普通的话题,写起来却不是那么容易。因为很多考生对于“绿色校园”所表达的内涵感觉比较生僻。假如对“绿色校园”这一主题感到难以把握,考生可以从作文提纲入手进行分析以获取对“绿色校园”这一概念的相关信息。根据作文提示2,可以看出此处的“绿色校园”指的决不仅仅是青青的草地和高大的树木构成的校园绿色风景,也不仅仅指对校园环境的珍视和爱护,而是指一种环境保护的文化氛围和师生具有的环境素养,以及由此带来的和谐的人文环境和社会绩效。在深入理解概念的基础上,考生还应对“绿色校园”的重要性进行剖析,这时,考生可以从多个角度组织素材,比如从校园的环境问题出发,进而扩展到师生的环境意识对“绿色校园”所产生的长远意义以及为未来环境改善所做的贡献。最后是阐述建设“绿色校园”所要采取的措施。需要注意的就是作文给分的重点在于考生如何用恰当的语言词汇表达自己的思想观点。而不是写得越多,得分就越高。一般分成三个自然段,大概十句话,基本的分布为首段、末段合起来五句或六句,中间段五句或四句,做到结构清楚,重点突出,就可以了。

参考范文

Creating a Green Campus

Recently, with the idea of making and maintaining“a green earth” being the focus of the society,“green campus” has become a more and more popular concept in universities or colleges, which, undoubtedly, will bring us an ever-lasting benefit to both our campus and our society.

The concept of“green campus” does not only mean a green environment but also refers to an environmental sense in people’s mind. Campus plays a crucial role in educating the young generation and the consciousness of“green campus” will definitely produce a profound effect on students’ various environmental protection activities after their graduation. What’s more, the young generation is under the burden of severe environmental pollution and there are many problems waiting for them to solve.

To make“green campus” come true, firstly, it is necessary to work out effective principles for the development of sustainable and recyclable campus. Secondly, it calls for people’s awareness of the serious pollution around us and actual action to reduce the waste. Last but not least, it is necessary to strengthen the ties between campus and society, so as to ensure that“green campus” can work smoothly with the co-effort of the whole society.

建设绿色校园

近来,随着建设并保持“绿色地球”的观念成为社会关注的焦点,“绿色校园”也成为校园里流行的话题。这无疑会给我们的校园和社会带来长远的利益。

“绿色校园”不仅仅指绿色的环境,还包括人们头脑中的环境意识。学校在培养年轻一代上起着关键作用,“绿色校园”的意识必定会对学生毕业后的环境保护意识产生长远影响。更为重要的是,年轻一代面临着严重的环境污染,有太多问题等待他们去解决。

为使“绿色校园”成为现实,首先应该制定出可持续发展、可长远发展的有效政策。其次,还需要人们对环境污染的严肃性有正确认识并采取实际行动切实减少污染。最后但同样重要的是,有必要加强学校和社会的联系以便在全社会共同努力下使“绿色校园”顺利实施。

范文点评

范文以“绿色校园”开篇,保证了文章切题。第一段开门见山,强调当今环保理念下构建“绿色校园”的长远意义。第二段,着重讨论“绿色校园”的含义,指出“绿色校园”不仅指校园中的绿化,还指生活在校园中的人们的绿色和环保意识,把校园这个小环境和社会这个大环境结合起来,说理更加深刻。第三段是谈及具体的做法,分一、二、三点进行论述,无疑是使“绿色校园”的理念落在实处。结构完整,首尾呼应,用词准确。关系词的正确使用让句与句之间、段与段之间衔接紧凑,思想表达成熟有深度。

【生动的用词】 maintain保持;concept概念;profound长远的;sustainable可持续的;recyclable可循环的。

【丰富的短语】bring benefit to带来利益;play a crucial role in发挥关键作用;under the burden of在……重负下;come true实现;call for要求。

【多变的句式】

范文中长句、短句、简单句、复杂句交叉使用。不同句型之间的转换,能让阅卷老师更好地了解考生对句子结构的掌握运用,从而获得高分。

避错指导

本次作文在题材上,虽然仍然延续了我们所熟悉校园类话题,但与社会背景有很大关系。刚刚闭幕的哥本哈根世界气候大会使环保减排这个主题成为焦点,在全世界都提倡可持续发展、和谐发展这一背景下的“绿色校园”,同时也是一个社会热点话题,这是我们审题时所必须考虑的。另外开篇时,切忌拖泥带水,应直截了当,使阅卷老师对文章主题一目了然。

除正确审题之外,考生还应注意语言的准确运用,不落俗套。不同句型之间转换时,考生应对句子结构全面掌握,避免句式错误造成扣分。

最后,应尽量避免单词拼写错误。本次作文常见的卷面拼写错误如下表:

正确拼写词性及词义错误的拼写

focus n.焦点 focuse

effect n.影响 effection/affect

environment n.环境 envirment/invironment

burden n.负担 burdon

solve v.解决 slove

serious a.严肃的 serous

true a.真的 ture

society n.社会 soceity

theory n.理论 thery

总之,考生在构思和写作过程中要尽可能做到思路完整,恰如其分地选择词汇。毕竟,无错表达才是四级语言表达合格的核心。

能力拓展

【同义词转换】

作文表达除了准确,还要做到句式多变,词汇灵活多样。

1. realize→ be aware of意识到

We’d better be aware of the seriousness of pollution around us.我们最好意识到周围污染的严峻性。

2. keep→ preserve保持

It is necessary to educate the students to be conscious of the importance to preserve the environment.有必要教育学生意识到保护环境的重要性。

3. lead→ conduct引导

This will help conduct the activities of the college students.这有助于引导大学生的行为。

【话题备考锦囊】

6. The idea of“a green campus” is beyond a green environment.“绿色校园”绝不仅仅是一个绿色环境。

7. The construction of“a green campus” will greatly stimulate students to take part in various environmental protection activities.建设“绿色校园”将会极大激励学生参与环境保护。

8. To bring“a green campus” to its full play, effective measures should be taken.为全面实施“绿色校园”,必须采取有效措施。

9. Campus construction is of vital importance not only to the physical development of students but to their mental health as well.校园建设不仅对学生的身体发展很重要,而且对他们的心理健康也很重要。

10. There is little doubt that further consideration must be paid to our green campus.毫无疑问,对于绿色校园应该给与更多的思考。

【话题词汇拓展】

devastation n.毁坏 disastrous a.损失惨重的

doom v.厄运,毁灭 existence n.存在,生活

healthful a.健康的 messy a.肮脏的,凌乱的

participation n.分享,参与 preserve v.保存,保护

preventive a.预防性的 purify v.澄清,净化

stimulation n.激励,鼓舞 arouse consciousness唤起意识

命题风向标

本次作文难度适中,与之前考试中出现的“限塑”主题有千丝万缕的联系。考生要想在本次作文中获取高分,除了审题恰当独到,还要有扎实的语言基础。如本文主题“绿色校园”可以采用多种表达:green campus和environmental-friendly campus;“绿色校园的构建”可以使用create,build up,establish和construct等,以体现考生对词汇多样性的积累。

从关注白色污染到关注博物馆免费开放,再到绿色校园构建,四级作文命题重点在侧重校园类话题的同时开始向与大学生生活有关的话题转移。由此也凸显了对历年真题分析的重要意义。更多地立足真题,总结规律,切实提高自己语言能力,始终是四级作文备考的根本。

PartⅡ Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)

篇章结构

核心词汇

1. aid n.①帮助,援助②助手v.帮助,援助

【用】financial aid经济援助;merit aid/ Merit-based奖学金;need-based aid助学金或经济资助;foreign aid外援,对外援助;hearing aid助听器;aids and appliances用具,设备【搭】in aid to用来帮助,起……作用;lead one’s aid(to)援助,给予帮助;in aid of作为援助……之用【拓】aidance n.协助,帮助;aidant a.帮助的;aided a.辅助的

2. project v.①设计②发射n.事业,计划,工程

【用】Project Hope希望工程;project manager项目经理;project plan项目规划;project budget项目预算,工程预算【拓】projection n.突出,发射;projecting a.突出的

3. selective a.选择性的

4.【用】selective analysis重点分析;selective breeding选择育种,选择性繁殖【拓】select v.挑选,选拔a.精选的;selection n.选择,挑选,选集

5. package n.包裹;套装软件,程序包a.一揽子的

【用】package design包装设计;package agreement一揽子安排,一揽子方案;package holiday(旅行社安排一切的)一揽子旅游;package tour包办旅行(路线、地点、时间和费用等均作统一规定和安排的旅游);package program组装程序【拓】pack n.包装,背包v.包装,压紧;packaged a.袋装的;packager n.打包机

6. ranking a.头等的;n.等级,地位

【用】ranking list排名;ranking method等级法,排序法

【拓】rank n.等级;队列;v.排列,列队

7. grant v.①授予②承认;n.①授予物②拨款

【用】grant of a patent授予专利权【搭】take…for granted认为……是理所当然; Granted/Granting that即使……(也)【拓】grants n.补助金,津贴(grant的复数)

8. enrol v.登记,入学,参军,注册

【搭】enrol in选课,参加【拓】enrollment n.登记,入伍;enrollee n.入学者,入伍者

9. eliminate v.消除,排除

【用】eliminate illiteracy扫盲;eliminate poverty消除贫困;eliminate noise消除噪声【拓】eliminate是指把已进入者从中排除;exclude v.指把想进入者拒之门外

10. qualify v.使具有资格,证明……合格【用】qualifying examination资格考试,初试;qualifying competition预选赛,资格赛【搭】qualify as取得……资格,作为……合适;qualify for有……的资格,合格【拓】qualified a.有资格的,合格的

11. excel v.胜过,优于,擅长n. [计算机]软件名称

【搭】to excel in/at(在某方面)胜过(或超过)别人;to excel in music擅长音乐

【拓】 excellent a.极好的,卓越的;excellence n.优秀,长处

12. submit v.使服从,提交【用】submit oneself to discipline遵守纪律;submit registration提交登记表,提交注册【搭】submit to服从;submit…to将……呈交给【拓】 submission n.服从,投降

试题详解

1.【原题译文】随着越来越多的低收入学生追求高等教育,一些学院__。

B【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是more and more,low-income students和pursuing higher education。由此即可定位到原文第二段,全文的主旨段。

【篇章分析】原文第二段指出:“But with low-income students projected to make up an ever-larger share of the college-bound population in coming years, some schools are re-examining whether that aid, typically known as merit aid, is the most effective use of precious institutional dollars.”原文中with low-income students projected to make up an ever-larger share of the college-bound population和题干中with more and more low-income students pursuing higher education意思一致;原文中re-examining和B选项中revise意思相同。所以答案为B。

2.【原题译文】位于米德维尔的阿勒格尼学院三年前做了什么?

D【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是大学名称Allegheny College in Meadville和do,由此定位到原文第三段。

【篇章分析】原文第三段指出:“George Washington University in Washington, D.C., for example, said last week that it would cut the value of its average merit scholarships by about one-third and reduce the number of recipients(接受者), pouring the savings, about$2.5 million, into need-based aid. Allegheny College in Meadville, Pa., made a similar decision three years ago.”题目中的D项It cut its merit-based aid help the needy students与原文cut the value of its average merit scholarships by about one-third and reduce the number of recipients, pouring the savings, about$2.5 million, into need-based aid意思相同,所以答案为D。

3.【原题译文】有排名意识的大学提供奖学金的主要目的是__。

C【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是rankings-conscious和purpose,由此可定位到原文第七段。

【篇章分析】原文第七段指出:“But for rankings-conscious schools in between, merit aid has served primarily as a tool to recruit top students and to improve their academic profiles.”原文中的recruit表示“招收”,和答案C中的attract意思相似,所以答案为C。

4.【原题译文】汉密尔顿的入学和助学金办公室主任莫尼卡•英泽相信__。

D【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是Monica Inzer, dean of admission and financial aid at Hanilton,由此可定位到原文第十段。

【篇章分析】原文第十段指出:“to be discounting the price for families that don’t need financial aid doesn’t feel right any more.”原文与D项it’s not right to give aid to those who can afford the tuition意思相同,所以答案为D。

5.【原题译文】近年来,奖学金的增长比助学金快得多,是因为__。

B【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是merit-based aid和increased,由此即可定位到原文第十二段第二句。

【篇章分析】原文第十二段第二句指出:“typically in a bid to enroll top students in the state’s public institutions.” in a bid to可以理解为“为了……,力求……”。enroll top students in the state’s public institutions符合原题意思,所以答案为B

6.【原题译文】依大卫•莱尔德来看,许多私立学院对奖学金的态度是什么?

A【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是David Laird,attitude,private colleges和merit aid,由此即可定位到原文第十四段。

【篇章分析】原文第十四段指出:“David Laird, president of the Minnesota Private College Council, says many of his schools would like to reduce their merit aid”。原文和答案A项They would like to see it reduced意思一致,所以答案为A。

7.【原题译文】为什么阿勒格尼学院不打算完全取消奖学金?

C【快速解题】本题的题干是Allegheny College和drop merit aid。由此即可定位到原文第十六段。

【篇章分析】原文第十六段指出:“A complicating factor is that merit aid has become so popular with middle-income families, who don’t qualify for need-based aid, that many have to depend on it.”。原文中depend on和答案C选项中的rely on意思相同,所以答案为C。

8. qualified

【原题译文】每年是否可以继续享受学术奖学金取决于奖学金得主是否继续________。

【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是annual renewal,academic,merit scholarships和recipient,由此即可定位到原文A few words about merit-based aid这一部分。

【篇章分析】原文A few words about merit-based aid部分第四句指出:“These merit scholarships usually help students pay tuition bills, and they can be renewed each year as long as the recipients continue to qualify”。这些奖学金通常帮助学生交纳学费,只要他们继续符合条件,每年都可以继续享受。原文中的each year在本题中被换成了annual,原文中的renewed在本题中被换成了名词renewal,原文中的continue被转换成了remain,所以本题应该填形容词qualified。

9. recognizes

【原题译文】体育奖学金申请者要求有______其在运动方面有杰出表现的教练或裁判的推荐。

【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是athletic和a coach or a referee,由此即可定位到原文A few words about merit-based aid这一部分第三段。

【篇章分析】原文A few words about merit-based aid这一部分第三段:“Recommendation for this scholarships is required, since exceptional athletic performance has to be recognized by a coach or a referee(裁判).”本奖学金必须有人推荐,因为杰出的运动表现必须得到教练或裁判的认可。题目把原文的被动结构变成了主动,而a coach or a referee是第三人称单数,所以本题应该填的答案是recognizes。

10. excellence

【原题译文】艺术奖学金要求申请者必须提交能表明其在某一领域______的证明。

【快速解题】本题的题干关键词是applicants,artistic merit scholarships,produce evidence和show,由此可定位到原文A few words about merit-based aid这一部分第四段。

【篇章分析】原文A few words about merit-based aid这一部分第四段指出:“Artistic merit scholarships require that applicants excel in a given artistic area”。艺术奖学金要求申请者在一定艺术领域有突出表现。原文中的in a given artistic field和题目中的in a particular artistic field同义,题目中需要填的是动词show的宾语,即一个名词,而原句中对应的excel却是动词词性,需要变成名词形式,所以答案就是excel的名词形式excellence。

全文精译

大学重新审视奖学金的价值

许多大学给予学生经济资助时,最重要的依据仍然是学生良好的评估等级和较高的试卷分数。

但是在未来几年里,预计低收入家庭的学生数占大学生总数的比例越来越大。一些学校正在重新考虑奖学金是否是利用大学宝贵的资金最有效的途径。

例如,华盛顿特区的乔治•华盛顿大学上周公布说将削减约三分之一的奖学金,减少奖学金得主数,而将节省下来的大约250万美元用于助学金。位于宾夕法尼亚州米德维尔的阿勒格尼学院三年前也做出了类似的决定。

纽约克林顿市的哈密尔顿学院说它将逐步淘汰奖学金。该规定不会使现有的奖学金得主失去奖学金,助学金制度将从2008年秋天入学的学生开始实行。

并不是所有的大学都提供奖学金;一般来说,淘汰率越高的学校,越不太可能提供奖学金。例如,哈佛大学和普林斯顿大学慷慨地提供了各种助学金,但是许多不符合助学条件的家庭为了上名牌大学不管付多少钱都愿意。

对于规模较小的地方性学院来说,他们只是努力填满空缺,奖学金只是财政收入的重要来源,因为许多奖学金得主仍需支付比奖学金金额更高的学费,而正是这些学费维持大学的运转。

但是对于有排名意识的学校,奖学金已经成为招收一流学生和改善他们的学术效益的一种主要工具。斯基德莫尔大学的经济学家桑迪•波美说,“他们试图购买学生”。

研究表明奖学金存在一种倾向,即大部分奖学金得主不依靠奖学金仍能支付得起学费。

“展望未来,更迫切需要的助学金投资”,汉密尔顿的入学和助学金办公室主任莫尼卡•英泽说。汉密尔顿大学已提供10年的奖学金。在这段时间里,在《美国新闻和世界报导》对最好的文学院的排名中,它从第25名上升到第17名。

奖学金每年帮助了大约75名学生,或大约4%的学生,花费大约为一年1百万美元,“奖学金给我们带来了好处”,英泽说,但“奖学金这种变相优惠学费的做法对不需要经济援助的家庭来说,似乎不妥。”

助学金目前仍是学生接受资助的主要方式,包括国家助学金、联邦助学金和机构助学金。但是,从总体上和大学层面上来看,主要由学校和州提供的奖学金增长速度很快。

一项由美国宾州州立大学教授唐纳德•海勒主持的研究报告表明,在1995-96和2003-04年之间,仅就大学的奖学金而言,增加了212%,而助学金增加了47%。至少有15个州也提供奖学金,通常是为了在公立大学中招收优等生。

但是近年来,越来越多的批评已经迫使大学开始减少这种做法。汉密尔顿和其他大学最近的决策可能是“一种迹象,表明人们开始意识到这种破坏性的竞争”,波美说。波美与他人合作,共同发表了一份《大学报告》,对于大学资助不是建立在需要的基础之上表示担忧。

明尼苏达私立大学委员会主席大卫•莱尔德认为,很多私立学校想减少奖学金,但害怕这样做,会使优秀学生流失到他们的竞争对手那里去。

“没有人可以采取单方面行动,”莱尔德说。他正在探索是否能获得联邦反托拉斯法的豁免,以使会员大学可以讨论如何共同降低奖学金。“这是一个跑得很快的旋转木马,没有大学相信他们能承受摆脱木马束缚的风险。”

一个复杂因素就是,奖学金已经在不符合助学金条件的中产阶级家庭中变得很受欢迎,结果许多家庭都依靠它。并且,随着学费不断增加,奖助学金之间的界限也变得模糊了。

这是阿勒格尼大学并不打算完全取消奖学金的理由之一。

“我们仍然相信对成绩优异者进行奖励的效用,好学生很重视奖学金”,阿勒格尼大学负责招生的副校长斯科特•弗利达霍夫说。

位于亚特兰大的艾莫利大学以拥有47亿美元的捐赠而自豪。同时该校拟采取新政策。今年,该大学宣布将取消特困生贷款,同时对中产阶级家庭的贷款进行限额,但它将扩大其已有28年历史的奖学金项目。

“是的,我们在玩奖学金游戏,”负责大学本科教育的副院长汤姆兰•卡斯特承认。但这也有它的优势,他说,“事实上,这不仅仅关系到低收入人群,它还关系到无缘问津助学金、普通的美国中产阶级家庭。”

*关于奖学金制度的几点补充

奖学金是向在某一领域杰出的学生提供的资助,通常是指学术、体育和艺术奖学金。

学术奖学金是以学生在高中阶段的分数,平均成绩和学术表现为基础。它们通常是专门为学,

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2009年英语四级考试时间

2009年全国大学英语上半年四级考试时间:2009年6月20日;

2009年全国大学英语下半年四级考试时间:2009年12月19日。

报名条件

(1)考试对象限制在普通高校内部四年制或以上根据教育大纲修完大学英语四级的在校大学本科生或研究生;

(2)同等程度的大专生或硕士研究生经所在学校同意,可在本校报名参加考试;

(3)同等程度的夜大或函授大学学生经所在学校同意,可在本校报名参加考试;

从2007年1月的考试开始,大学英语四六级考试将不再对社会考生开放,只对在校大学生开放。

2017年12月全国大学英语四级考试听力真题及解析

Lions' tracks.

Conversation 1

M: I bet you're looking forward to the end of this month. Are you?

W: Yes, I am. How did you know?

M: David told me you had a special birthday coming up.

W: Oh…yeah that's right. This year will be my golden birthday.第8题

M: What does that mean? I've never heard of a golden birthday.

W: I've actually just learnt this concept myself. Fortunately, just in time to celebrate. A golden or lucky birthday is when one turns the age of their birth date. So, for example, my sister's birthday is December 9th and her golden birthday would have been the year she turned nine years old. Come to think of it, my parents did throw her a surprise party that year.第9题

M: Interesting. Too bad I missed mine. My golden birthday would've been four years ago. I assume you got big plans then.

W: Actually yes. My husband is planning a surprise holiday for the two of us next week. I have no idea what he's got in mind, but I'm excited to find out. Has he mentioned anything to you?

M: He might have.

W: Anything you'd like to share? I'm dying to know what kind of trip he has planned on where we're going.第10题

M: You know nothing at all?

W: Not a clue. Hard to imagine, isn’t it? Though I must say I think he's been having even more fun keeping the secret from me in the past few weeks.

M: I'm sure both of you will have a fantastic time. Happy golden birthday! I can't wait to hear all about it when you get back.第11题

第一篇长对话中心点都和某个特殊的日子以及礼物相挂钩

第八题就考查了中心点(并且重心落在女性身上)

第九题围绕某个特殊的日子,要给女性一份礼物,所以在做题过程中确定好第八第九的紧密联系,有了这个特殊的日子,才有礼物

第十题出现了husband和man。选项中的关键区分词只有gift/trip; bought/planned; troubling/up to

第十一出现的人物he考查细节信息,选项中还同时出现了介词,根据课上所讲,介词出现的时候要关注介词的两端:A. glad/guide B. tell the woman…C. eager/ learn D. wants/ find out

Q8. What is the woman looking forward to?

Her'lucky birthday'.原文

Q9. What did the woman's parents do on her sister's lucky birthday?

Threw her a surprise party.原文

Q10. What is the woman eager to find out about?

The trip her husband has planned.原文

Q11. What does the man say at the end of the conversation?

He is eager to learn how the couple's holiday turns out.

Conversation 2

W: Mr. Green, what do you think makes a successful negotiator?

M: Well, that’s hard to define. But I think successful negotiators have several things in common. They are always polite and rational people. They are firm but flexible. They can recognize power and know how to use it. They are sensitive to the dynamics of the negotiation.第12题 The way of rises and falls and how it may change direction. They project the image of confidence, and perhaps most importantly, they know when to stop.第13题

W: And, what about an unsuccessful negotiator?

M: Well, this is probably all of us when we start out. We are probably immature and over-trusting. Too emotional or aggressive. We are unsure of ourselves and we want to be liked by everyone. Good negotiators learn fast.第14题 Poor negotiators remain like that and go on losing negotiations.

W: In your opinion, can the skills of negotiation be taught?

M: Well, you can teach someone how to prepare for a negotiation. There are perhaps six stages in every negotiation. Get to know the other side.第15题 State your goals. Start the process. Clarify areas of disagreement or conflict. Reassess your position. Making acceptable compromises. And finally, reach some agreement in principle. These stages can be studied. And strategies to be used in each can be planned beforehand. But I think, the really successful negotiator is probably born with six sense about responding appropriately to the situation at hand.

W: The artistic sense you’ve just described?

M: Yes. That’s right.

第二篇长对话总体和人物相关,以细节题为重心

12-14考查的都是they为主的细节信息,15题涉及动作;考查难度不大,但是在部分单词中可能会产生障碍,ensitive/dynamic/negotiation/compromise/intention/formulate

Q12: What does the man say about good negotiators?

They are sensitive to the dynamics of a negotiation.原文

Q13: What does the man say may be the most important thing to a successful negotiator?

They know when to stop.原文

Q14: How is a good negotiator different from a poor one?

They learn quickly.原文

Q15: What is the first stage of negotiation according to the man?

Get to know the other side.原文

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